Q. Explain the four processes of Social Learning Theory.
Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. According to Bandura, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.
Four Processes of Social Learning Theory
1. Attention processes
People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. In order to learn, it is required to pay attention. Anything that detracts the attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the is model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, it is more likely to dedicate the full attention to learning.
2. Retention processes
A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the it is no longer readily available. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.
3. Motor reproduction processes
After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.
4. Reinforcement processes
Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.